# Culinary Calculations

## Recipe Yield and Conversion

A standardized recipe that is followed correctly will produce a specific yield and number of portions. The yield can be described by weight, volume, pan size, and or number of portions. For example, an AP 20-pound roast will yield an EP 15-pound roast or thirty 8-ounce portions. A recipe for cream of broccoli soup will yield two gallons, or thirty-two 8-fluid-ounce portions. A recipe for lasagna will yield four 200 pans and, when cut 4 X 6, will yield 96 portions. A freshly baked apple pie...

## Portions In Food Service

The size of the portion served to the guest varies based on a number of factors. The first factor is the meal period. Lunch portions are smaller than dinner portions. Some restaurants offer the same entrees for both lunch and dinner. The dinner portions are larger than the same item at lunch and might come with a choice of soup or salad. If this is the case, the menu price for the dinner entree is higher than the comparable entree served for lunch. In a restaurant where the norm for dinner is a...

## Basic Mathematics 103 Foodservicespecific Mathematical Terminology

Culinarians need to understand certain mathematical terms and symbols. Some of the terms explain what type of information we will receive after performing the correct mathematical calculation. Some of these symbols express the relationship between two numbers. Product yield means that, on average, every time we purchase a certain food product and process or cook it the same way, we will have the same amount of product to serve to our guests. A local bakery is famous for its apple pies. The pies...

## Miscellaneous Items

There are many other items that we use daily in a food service operation. The majority of them are ingredients added to a recipe to produce a final product. Some of the items are costly, others are not. Fat and Oil Fat and or oil adds flavor and texture to any product and is a necessary ingredient in many recipes. The source of fat used in food service is from animals. Fat from beef, pork, chicken, and cows' milk is highly saturated. Saturated fat is considered a risk factor for heart disease...

## Recipe Cost and Portion Cost

Now that Sammy has the revised quantity of all of the ingredients for the Beef Stew with Assorted Vegetable recipe for July 13, he can purchase the correct quantity of product. Based on the price paid for each ingredient, Sammy can determine a recipe cost for the 17 portions and a cost per portion. The current prices for the ingredients are listed below, along with their quantities. 21.15 (rounded recipe cost) 17 (portions) 1.24 It costs Sammy 1.24 for every portion of Beef Stew with Assorted...

## How To Price A Menu

When you begin to price a menu, all of the factors mentioned previously must be taken into account the need to make a profit, the customers' perception of value for the price, the location of the operation, the quality of the food, and the expertise of the staff. Then we turn to the mathematics. Exactly how much money is needed monthly to pay for all of the operating and capital expenses and the profit After we have our monthly expenses, we can make an educated estimate of the number of...

## Basic Mathematics 101 Whole Numbers

Mathematical concepts are necessary to accurately determine a cost per portion or plate cost. As we adjust our way of thinking about mathematics, we can begin to utilize it as a tool to ensure that we can run a successful food service operation. Correct mathematical calculations are the key to success. Let's review those basic mathematical calculations using a midscale food service operation. A midscale food service operation is a restaurant that serves three meal periods breakfast, lunch, and...

## Aspurchased Edibleportion And Asserved Yields

When food is purchased, it is commonly delivered in a form or state that is very different from the finished product that will be served to our guests. For example, if we purchase a prime rib roast, it can arrive at our loading dock either fresh or frozen. The roast can weigh 10 pounds. Before we can serve our guests prime rib, we must cook the roast. After the roast comes out of the oven, it needs to stand for 15 to 30 minutes. Then we can slice the roast into the portion size that we serve to...

## Basic Mathematics 102 Mixed Numbers And Nonintegers Quantities

Mixed numbers are numbers that contain a whole number and a noninteger quantity, a fraction. Three and one half (3 2) is a mixed number. All fractions, decimals, and or percentages represent noninteger quantities. Basic mathematical operations apply to mixed numbers, fractions, decimals, and percentages. Noninteger quantities are common in food service mathematics. Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages Any product purchased that is trimmed before cooking, or that shrinks during the cooking or...

## Conversion Between Traditional United States Units Of Measure And The Metric System

The United States is definitely a part of the international community. As such, we are slowly leaning toward adopting the metric, or at least coexisting system in the metric world. In culinary publications, it is common to see recipes whose ingredients are listed in both the traditional U.S. quantities and their metric equivalent. The relationships between the units of measure are constant, so a multiplier can be developed to express these relationships. The easiest way to convert a recipe from...

## The Purchasing Function And Its Relationship To Cost Review Problems

Why is the purchasing function so important to a food service operation 3. What does the best quality for its intended use mean 4. How do we determine the correct order quantity 5. What is value to a food service operator 6. What does value added mean to a food service operator 7. Why do we have an audit trail 11. What is the difference between EP and AS 12. What is a yield percentage Maximum, Minimum, and Order-Quantity Par Levels 13. The Lucky Luau uses a large quantity of canned pineapple...

## Labor Cost And Control Techniques

The cost of labor is the highest operating expenses in a typical food service operation. Labor cost can average 30 to 35 percent of sales. In some operations, labor costs can be as high as 40 percent of sales. This means that for every dollar we collect in food sales, 0.30 to 0.35 or perhaps even 0.40 is spent to cover the cost of labor. The actual dollar amount paid to an employee is only the beginning of our labor costs. In many food service operations, employees are offered benefits....